Tooth extraction is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, but most commonly to remove teeth which have become unable to restore through tooth decay, periodontal disease or dental trauma; especially when they are associated with toothache.
There are various procedures of tooth extractions depending upon the case to case. The dentist decides the best way after clinical examination and taking x-ray to see the position and condition of the tooth to be extracted and accordingly decides whether the tooth can be extracted simply or some surgical procedure for tooth extraction has to be adopted. There are two ways of extracting or pulling out the teeth. These two ways are:
are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually under local anesthetic, and require only the use of instruments to elevate and/or grasp the visible portion of the tooth.
involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed, either because they have broken under the gum line or because they have not erupted fully. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. Frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal. Surgical extractions can be performed by local anesthetic or under a general anesthetic.
After the tooth is removed, a bite pack is used to apply pressure to the tooth socket and stop the bleeding. After a tooth extraction, dentists usually give advice which revolves around not disturbing the blood clot in the socket by not touching the area with a finger or the tongue, by avoiding vigorous rinsing of the mouth and avoiding strenuous activity. If the blood clot is dislodged, bleeding can restart, or alveolar osteitis (“dry socket”) can develop, which can be very painful and lead to delayed healing of the socket.